Lead - acid battery charging technology training discussion study summary

update:2017/5/24, view:

First, the commonly used several charging methods introduced:

• Constant current limiting mode

         This method is mainly used in the field of online UPS, etc. The lead-acid battery charging process is divided into two stages, the first stage is the constant current process, the current value is generally set within 0.3C; the second stage is the constant voltage stage, the voltage is set at 13.7V or so (to 12V battery as an example.) For a fully vented battery, in this way generally takes more than 40 hours to fully fill the battery. The advantages of this charging method is simple circuit can be connected to the system and power, long Time charge is also no overcharging hidden trouble.The shortcomings of the charging time is too long in the telecommunications and emergency lighting system, the basic are this charging mode.

"Constant current + are charged + floating charge" three-stage

     Mainly used in places requiring frequent charging (such as electric bicycles)

Constant current + timing are charged + floating charge "to improve the three-stage

  This is a modified three-stage, the timing of the charge is the purpose of reducing the battery abnormal water loss and heat deformation of the hidden dangers;

Multi-stage positive (negative) pulse type

         In theory, the use of positive and negative pulse charging to help reduce the battery charging process of the "vulcanization" and "polarization" phenomenon, increase the positive and negative hydrogen and oxygen gas compound rate, reduce battery water loss, but the specific effect of quantification So far in the international community there is still a big controversy.This theory first appeared in the 1960s, to the current controversy is still large.Although the effect of positive and negative pulse controversial, but we have always admitted: a reasonable use Pulse charging the battery itself and no obvious adverse consequences.

Second, how to determine whether the battery is full

• In the battery current and voltage range, when the battery into the battery power is no longer converted to the battery chemical energy, and then make the battery fever, you can think that the battery is full, because if the recharging of excess current, the battery will Serious heat exhaust or even burst damage.

• When measuring the capacity of a fully charged battery (number of hours), it is most accurate and convenient to use constant current electronic loads. Note that the "time current product (AH)" obtained at different discharge magnification is not exactly , The specific differences see the battery manufacturers technical curve table.

Third, the battery capacity decline and failure reasons

• Insufficient charge from the electrochemical reaction, the lack of charge for the performance of the cathode yin and yang lead sulfate can not be fully converted to sponge-like lead and lead dioxide, which makes the battery capacity is insufficient, such as long-term charge of less than electricity, it will cause lead sulfate crystallization, Particles increase, so that plate curing, battery quality worse.

• Excessive overcharging will cause the amount of oxygen produced by the anode to be greater than the absorptive capacity of the cathode, thereby increasing the internal pressure of the battery and eventually opening the safety valve, the gas spill, resulting in reduced electrolyte. In addition, excessive charge, the anode and cathode active substances will have an impact, so that the active material softened, destroyed the positive plate lattice interface, and a molecule into b molecules, and b molecules are irreversible. Even if the recharging can not restore capacity, battery life greatly shortened.

• Poor battery process In the process of battery production due to process defects caused by the safety valve leakage, positive plate corrosion, deformation, active material fall off, softening caused by failure

Fourth, the charger how to delay the battery capacity failure

• 100% full of batteries as possible, allowing the chemicals in the battery to participate in the charge and discharge reactions, reducing the generation and accumulation of lead sulfate crystals.

• In the later stages of charging, the necessary measures are taken to reduce the gas precipitation rate and the amount of gas to reduce the loss of the electrolyte (ie, water loss). If two-stage constant current and constant voltage are used, the above two are easy to implement, but for electric bicycle applications Field, 40 hours of charging time is simply not practical.People can accept the normal charging time must be less than 12 hours, it must be used three-stage or intelligent pulse can meet the requirements of the charging time, whether it is ordinary three If the voltage is low, if the voltage is low, then the charge is not enough, if the charge voltage is high, will inevitably lead to a large number of precipitation near the electrode gas. The next page shows the gas and composite and specific data . When the precipitation of hydrogen gas gas can not be timely composite pressure increases, the battery will pass through the exhaust valve exhaust pipe 'designed a reasonable charger should ensure that the first time in a guaranteed time to ensure full of electricity, while minimizing Gas precipitation rate and gas analysis.

Five, multi-angle view of pulse charging technology

• In theory, charging with positive and negative pulses helps to reduce the "vulcanization" and "polarization" phenomena during battery charging, increase the recombination rate of positive and negative hydrogen and oxygen gases, and reduce battery water loss.

• Reasonable use of pulse charging on the battery itself and no obvious adverse consequences.

• Many domestic charger manufacturers and individuals claim that their pulse chargers can extend battery life more than doubling the number of effects, and believe that the majority of consumers will have a conclusion after two years. The effect of pulse charging 40 years of international There is no consensus on the formation of a consensus, maybe two years of China's large number of practical data will provide sufficient arguments.

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